JAAME – Vol. 5, No. 1
Recent literature has recognized the racial disproportionalities that exist in school discipline policies, special education practices, and tracking programs and curriculum with regard to African American male student achievement. Although ample studies have provided suggestive measures for how policy and practice can reform this epidemic, there exists a gap in the literature with respect to the provision of specific, strategic models for academic success among this demographic. This research study provides a comprehensive review of the ways in which schools of choice can advance academic outcomes for students through charters, college preparation programs, and single gender models. We report three school models that have demonstrated success, followed by a discussion regarding undergirding program themes. Key recommendations for administrators and policy makers include reform strategies for discipline-related infractions, a reevaluation of the role of culture and its significance in the classroom, and the continual collaboration amongst school, home, and community.
Lakia M. Scott
Chance W. Lewis
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
This article synthesizes literature on Black gay and bisexual college men and introduces a new theoretical consideration for understanding the experiences of Black gay and bisexual college men at predominantly White institutions building on W. E. B. Du Bois’ (1903/2010) theory of double consciousness and Vivienne Cass’ (1979, 1984) model of sexual identity formation—what the authors consider “quadruple consciousness.” The article closes with recommendations for practice and future research.
Donald Mitchell, Jr.
Grand Valley State University
Darris R. Means
North Carolina State University
Knowledge and ways of knowing derived from African American history and traditions have typically been marginalized or excluded from the learning landscape of African American students. This essay urges a turn to ways of knowing, valuing, and meaning making based on inquiry and teaching around cultural ideas espoused during the Black Arts Movement (1965-1976). As an alternative paradigm, Black Arts inquiry and pedagogy is presented as a functional extension of African American cultural knowledge and life praxes. The author draws from two sources: (a) the ideological mission undertaken by the cultural architects of the Black Arts Movement and (b) his extensive experience as a teaching artist. Both sources are interpreted and situated as modalities to encourage: (a) critical resistance to ideology and psycho-cultural models imposed by the dominant culture; (b) development of culturally based aesthetic and materialist approaches that make worthwhile use of African American cultural knowledge; (c) culturally-situated curricula to engage the intellectual and aesthetic sensibilities of Black males; and (d) the development of an apprenticeship tradition to appropriately interpret the African American intellectual genealogy to successive generations.
Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development has turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of homeschooling African American parents. It is the purpose of this essay to explore how a deep concern for their sons undergirds African American parents’ decision to embrace homeschooling. In that respect, based on interviews of homeschooling parents from metropolitan areas of the Northeast and Midwest, homeschooling is portrayed as an ideal panacea to counter the many obstacles faced by African American males. It is said to (1) provide a safe space where healthy notions of African American masculinity can be constructed, (2) protect African American males from possible entanglement in the criminal justice system, and (3) serve as an effective means to teach and shield African American males from biased expectations of teachers, and society at large.
Montgomery County Community College
In the post-secondary education environment, student organizations, faculty, and administers are seeking to identify strategies and programs that can reduce and/or eliminate disparities in prolonged mental health quality of life among sexual minorities. This observational study provides a preliminary needs assessment analysis of college-aged African American sexual minority males to inform community engagement best practice strategies and contribute to developing more appealing intervention packaging targeting this population of males who are at risk for diminished mental health quality of life. Specifically, this study documented attitudes about sexual orientation-identity label-preference and characterized the relationship between sexual orientation-identity label-preference and mental health quality of life. Participants completed a mental health quality of life measure and supplied sociodemographic data that included information about their sexual risk behaviours, relationship status and dynamics, and attitudes toward sexual orientation-identity label-preference. The study sample included 55 males who self-identified as a sexual minority and AA (94.5%). Participants were between 18 years and 29 years old (M = 21, SD=2.7) and classified as undergraduate students (84%). The study findings indicated that participants endorsed varying sexual orientation-identity preferences; however, 71% rejected all sexual identity labels. Factors more strongly associated with sexual orientation identity label-rejection included a higher likelihood to have sex outside of a relationship, history of depression, and a greater likelihood to disclose their sexual orientation-identity to a female. Comparatively, mental health quality of life symptom endorsement and intensity scores were higher than the normative sample scores. Overall, the findings may serve to better characterize the relationship between sexual orientation-identity label-preference and mental health quality of life, and improve our understanding surrounding sexual minority mental health and related health disparities with particular attention to developing acceptable mental health interventions targeting AA men with diverse sexual orientations.
David L. Mount
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Wake Forest University School of Medicine
Louis F. Graham
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Michael C. Lambert
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Although a strong sense of ethnic identity has been demonstrated to be a salient factor in African American male students’ academic achievement, ethnic identity is generally avoided in schools because of fears of race and ethnicity among teachers and because of romantic notions of the “melting pot” in the general population. To assist teachers in the critical tasks of facilitating their students’ ethnic identity development while improving their academic achievement, the author developed the four dimensions of Ethnic Identity Exploration in Education. Each of the four dimensions is explained briefly and examples for implementation of the dimension are provided.
André J. Branch
San Diego State University
**Manuscript accepted under the editorship of J. Luke Wood, PhD
Note: The article “Quadruple Consciousness” by Donald Mitchell, Jr. and Darris Means was submitted, reviewed, and accepted for publication prior to Dr. Mitchell’s transition into the role of Managing Editor for JAAME.